fnd ch fiakd mCIh


wruQKQ iy m%;sm;a;s



  1. isxy, fn!oaOhska m%Odk ishu ck jAr.hkAAg ksfrda.S ;hla .; lsug wjYHh mshjr .ekSu' by; lreKg m%Odk ;ek h hq;af;a f,dalfha Yd, ck iuQyhla fkdfhl=;a wdldrfha f,v frda.j,ska mSvd k neks' Tn Yajdi fkdlrk kuq;a i;H k taia frda.h iy ms<sld we;su;a" lD;%suj we;s lrkq ,nk frda. ;;ajhka njh' tfiau WK" fvx.=" hjehdj" wl ;rndrelu" weia frda. wd fkdfhl=;a frda.o Bg wh;ah' fuu frda.hka jHdma; lsfuka ryia T;a;= fiajdjka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka tu frda.j,g wjYH fnfy;a j. ksmojk iud. j, ,dNh je lr .ekSuhs' h hlska wmyg wjia:djla ,enqkfyd;a fuu frda. ksgdjg iqj lrkq we;'

  2. 1815 ud;= 2 k isxyf,a bx.%SiSkag .siqulska ndr ka k isg 1948 Bkshd ksoyi ,efuka miq;a 1995 olajd rcfha ryia T;a;= fiajfha m%Odkshd jyfhka lghq;= lr we;af;a %;dkH cd;slfhls' tmuKla fkdj ,xldf T;a;= fiajfha n,h ys we;af;ao %;dkH T;a;= fiajd iska mqre mqyqKq lrk ,o msilgh' tneka 1815 isg 1995 olajd rg ;=< is we;s my; i|yka wmrdO j,g %;dkH rcfhka jka b,a,d iskq we;'

    • 1818 iy 1848 ksoyia igka j, isxy,hkag iy Tjqkaf.a foafmd< j,g isjQ ydkshg jka uqo,la

    • 1897 uqvq mk; hgf;a lkao Wvrg isxy,hkaf.a bv Yd, m%udKhla rchg mjrd .ekqKs" tneka Tjqkag isjQ widOdrKh fjkqfjka jka uqo,la f.h hq;= w;r tu bv j,ska yels Wmu m%udKh;a Tjqkag ,nd osh hq;=h'

    • 1983 l cq,sh we;s fldg isxy, fou< cd;Ska fo fldg rg folv lrk hqoaOhla ksudKh lsug j. lsj hq;af;ao Tjqkah' tneka hqoaOfha h .sh iy wdnd; jQ ;%sO yuqod j, finkago fmd,Sisfha iy is,a wdrCIl n,ldfha finkago rg mqrd fndan msmsfuka h .sh iy wdnd; jQ ish u fokdgo thska isjQ w,dN ydksj,g o W;=re kef.kysr isxy, fou< iy uqia,s ck;djg wdl jYfhka isjQ ydksj,g o h.sh ishu fou< ;reKhkag o miq.sh wjq 30 ;=< rcfha weia;fka;= wkqj hqoaO hou jQ remsh,a flda 2300000 la o %;dkH rcfhka jka jYfhka b,a,d ish hq;=h'

    • bx.%Siskaf.a md,k iufha ol=Kq bkahdf isg j;=j, jev lsu i|yd f.kajd .;a fou< ck;dj yels Wmu m%udKhla kej; bkahdjg heug lghq;= lrk w;r Tjqka fjkqfjka Wmu jka uqo,la %;dkH rcfhka b,a,d ish hq;=h'

    • %;dkHhka iska lr we;s ;j;a wmrdOhla k h.u ksoyia fj<| l,dmfha msysgqjd we;s uqo,a fkdagq uqKh lrk n%en ,alskaika kue;s %;dkH iud.u iska rchg wjYH uqo,a fkdagq uqKh lrk w;r;=r kS;shg mgyeksj o uqo,a fkdagq uqKh lr wdlh kdY lsug lghq;= lr we;' fuu wmrdOh lr we;af;a 1981 muK h miqj tu iud.f ku f;dauia ,dre f,i fjkia lr we;'

  3. 1505 mD;=.SiSka meKSfuka mqi ,kafoaiSka o bkamiq bx.%SiSka o meKs nj wm okakd lreKls' Tjqka iska fuu ld,h ;=, wmf.a jia;=j fYaIfhka fl!;=l NdKav /ila f.k f.dia we;' WodyrK jYfhka lshkafka k f;kakfldaka u,dkkao uy;d iska r; Wvrg uy le/,a, k fmdf;ys i|ykaj we;s m %;dkH fl!;=ld.drfha muKla we;s mqiafld, fmd;a m%udKh fldmuKo h;a tajd wjqre 10lg j;a lshjd ksul, fkdyels njhs' fuu ishu NdKav kej;;a ,xldjg f.kajd .ekSug lghq;= lrkq we;'

  4. f,dalfha iEu rglu ld,.=Kh foaY.=Kh muKla fkdj N lmd iqkd;;ajhka iy .sKsl msmso pJsld ;dCIKh Tiafia ,xldf isg iqms m.Klhla u.ska md,kh lrkq we;' kg ,xldjg pJsld ;dCIKh;a iqms m.Klhkao fkdue;s neka ta i|yd tu ;dCIKh we;s rgj,a j, fiajh ,nd.kq we;'

  5. uqyqfoa r< md,khgo mshjr .kq we;'

  6. w,s ksia .eu keje;aug wjYH w,ska md,kh lsf oHq;a ;rx. jegj,a blrk w;r f.dkago tjeks WmlrK ,nd fokq we;'

  7. j;udkfha flfi,a" n;," u[af[dlald" bkak, iy fldia jeks foaYSh wdydr j, cdk lD;s fldg tajd ck;djf.a mfNdackfhka bj;a lsf l=uka;%Khla l%shd;aul fjka ;sf' th je,elSug mshjr .kq we;'

  8. m%Sud iud.u msysgjQ k isg f olajd foaYSh fj<| fmd,g ksl=;a fldg we;af;a ;s= wegfha fmdaIHodhS n%Eka kue;s fldgi bj;a fldg fmdaIHodhS fkdjk msIaGh muKs' f fya;=fjka wo jk g hdmkh ia;%slalfha yer wfkla ishu m%foaY j, ck;dj ukaofmdaIKhg ,la we;' ck;dj mdka ms mfNdackhg mqre u g fya;= we;'

  9. iuyr fokd lshkafka ,xldj lDIsldl rgla nj;a rg hqKq l, yelafla lDIsluh hqKq lsfuka muKla nj;ah' wdydr ksIamdokfhka muKla wdl jYfhka rgla hqKq l, fkdyels nj wdl jYfhka hqKq f,dalfha wfkla rgj,a foi ne,Sfuka fmkS hhs' WodyrK jYfhka cmdkh iy fldhdj .; yelsh' h ylska wm rg imQKfhkau j.d fldg bka ,efnk wdodhu m%d.aOk NdKav wdkhkh i|yd ho lsug m%udKj;a fkdf' tneka yels blaukska rg ldl lrKh l, hq;=h'

  10. jD; wdlh fya;=fjka jiduQ foaYSh ludka; i|yd jka uqo,la ,nd ug lghq;= lrkq we;'

  11. wjqre 15 la we;=,; isxy, NdIdj muKla rdcH NdIdj lrkq we;' 1956 nKaavdrkdhl uy;d th lf<a meh 24 lskah' tys fou< l;dlrk ck;djg isxy, bf.k .ekSug ld,hla fkd;snQ neka Tjqkaf.a n,j;a frdaOhla u;=h' 1815 isg 1948 olajd bx.%Sis md,khla ;snQ rgl bx.%Sishg weneys jQ msila isu mquhla fkdf' 1956 nKavdrkdhl uy;d isxy, NdIdfjka md,sfka;=j wu;ka m%ldY lf<a rgg ksoyi ,enqfka wo k njh'

    j;udkfha isxy, NdIdj kdYlsrSf l=uka;%Khla muKla fkdj rg bx.%SislrKh lsrSSf n,f.hlaa o l%shd;aul fjka ;sf' bx.%Sis NdIdj f,dalfha flda 60la l;d lrk nj i;Hls' kuq;a cd;shl wkkH;dj NdIdj jk neka wm rf isxy, NdIdjg m%Odk ;ek h hq;=h' wm ljqre;a okakd m f,dalfha fojk wdl n,j;d we;af;a cmdkhhs' fldhdj o wdl jYfhka Yla;su;ah' tneka hfula lshkafka bx.%Sis NdIdj fkdkSu rg hqKq lsug ndOdjla nj k th fndrejls'

    wm rf bx.%Sis NdIdjg m%Odk ;ek we;af;a wm rg %;dkHhg hg;aj ;snQ rgla neks" h hlska hkduh iy we,acSShdj fuka m%xYhg hg;aj ;snQ rgla jQfha k wm rf m%Odk NdIdj jkqfha m%xY NdIdjh'

    bkahdf 45] muKla yska NdIdj l:d l<;a rdcH NdIdj yskah' wm rf 80] la isxy, NdIdj okakd neka isxy, NdIdj rdcH NdIdj muKla lsu jrola fkdf'


  12. %;dkHhka iska mqre mqyqKq lrk ,o rcfha ryia T;a;= fiajfha mqoa.,hka iska isxy, fn!oaO ck;dj j| lsf iy l=re njg m;alsf l=uka;%Khla l%sh;aul lrka ;sfnk neka th t<sor fldg Tjqka yg jka uqo,la iy tu ;dKh rcfha ryia T;a;= fiajhg imhd we;s rgj,ska jkaos ,nd.ekSug lghq;= lrK w;r laf,dkSlrKfhka orejka yslsug wjYH ;dCIKh .ek fidhd n,d isxy, cd;sh fmadIKhg yd jOkh lsug wruqo,la msysgjkq we;'

  13. miq.sh wjqre 20 muK ;=< rcfha ryia T;a;= fiajh iska lD;su jIdj we;s fldg is lr we;s kdYh fjkqfjka f.d ck;djg jkahla f.jkq we;'

  14. wm rfgys je m%udKhla /lshd imhkqfha fiajd fCIa;%hkays h WyrK f,i rCIK" nexl=" fi!LH" wdrCIl" wOHdmk" m%jdyk" c,m%jdyk' ,sn, wd jYfhkah' kuq;a ksIamdok fa;%fha /lshd iemhSug ;r rg ldlrKh fkdue;' tneka lDIsluhg fiau rg ldl lrKh lsuo yels blaukska l, hq;=h'

  15. 1989 muK isg f olajd we;slrK ,o yis wk;=re j,ska h .sh iy ;=jd, ,enQ ish fokdgu jka f.h hq;=h'

  16. uqo,a mmd,kh m.Kl .; lsu' wm okakd m wdlhg uqo,a iemhSu md,kh lrkqfha uy nexl=j u.sks' kuq;a iuyr wud;HdxY j,g fjka lrk uqo,a iy jdKsc nexl= u.ska uqo,a ixirKh md,kh lsf fkdfhl=;a jxpd is we;snj fndfyda fokd fkdokakd lreKls' tneka Bg ms<shula f,i' fuu lreK Wmld jkq we;'

  17. iEu ksjilg u fkdf,a c, myiql imhkq we;'

  18. j;udk Wiia wOhdmkh fhduq we;af;a foaYSh Y%u fj<| fmd,g Y%lhka imhk wdldrhgh' Bg fya;= we;af;a wm rf m%udKj;a /lshd m%udKhla yslsug ;r wdlh hqKq fkduhs'

  19. jdy lghq;= j, ldka;d mdYjfhka oEjeoao b,a,Su kS;sfhka imqrd ;yk lrkq we;' kuq;a fomshkaf.aa leue;a; we;sj h fohla ug kS;sfhka bv i,iajkq we;'

  20. jdy f m%Yakh cd;sl m%YaaKhla f,i wm i,lk neka ta i|yd fjku wud;HdxYhla msysgjkq we;'

  21. je,s f.dv oeug iy ueKsla .eug n, m;% wjYH fkdjkq we;'

  22. rgg fyda ;uka fiajh lrk wdh;kfha hqKqjg w,q;a fhdackd fyda IK fy<sor lrk mqoa.,hkag ;E.s uqo,a ,nd ug lghq;= lrkq we;'

  23. w;a w;a oE ksmojk mqoa.,hskag fyda foaYSh wdh;kj,g ;E.s uqo,a iy n iyk ,nd fokq we;

  24. rf ku 1815 bx.%SiSkag ndr fok g ;snQ ku jk isxyf,a f,i fjkia lrkq we;'

  25. cd;sl .Sh f,i uy.u fialrhka iska r;" wurfoajhka iska .dhkd lrk r;ak m ckau N ''''.S;h ms<s.kq we;' we;a; jYfhkau wdkkao iurfldaka uy;d iska r; j;udk cd;sl .Shg tu ;ek ,enqfka widOdrK f,i lrk ,o ksYaphlsks'

  26. 1815 ud;= 2 k isxy,hkag wys jQ ish oE ,nd .; hq;=h' kg l%shd;auljk frdau ,kafoais kS;sh;a bx.%Sis kS;sh;a fjkia fldg wmgu wkkHjQ kS;s moaO;shla ilia lrkq we;' ;jo hdmkh ia;%slalhg muKla l%shd;aul jk flaij,f kS;sh bj;a lrkq we;'

    1505 isg 1815 ud;= 2 k lkao Wvrg bx.%SiSkag mjrd fok ;=re mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais" bx.%Sis hk cd;Ska ;=kla iu isxy,hkag hqoaO lrkak ish' ;j;a hlska lshkafka k f,dalfha id.r mfyau n,h mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais bx.%Sis hk ;=kaf.d,a,kag wh;aj ;sh fld<U isg uykqjrg ie;mq 72la hdug Tjqkg wjqre 310 la .;h'

    tfiau 1995 jk f;lau rcfha ryia T;a;= fiajfha m%Odkshd jYfhka lghq;= lr we;af;a %;dkH cd;slhkaa neka wjqre 490la foaYslhkag hg;aj ;snQ rgl jeishka jk isxy, ^wdishdju i,ld ne g isxy, iq cd;shls" tfia jkafka ;,a kdvqf flda 6 l v ck;dj;a j;aj isk neks& cd;slhska iu fou<" uqia,s n." uef,a hk cd;Skag ;u wkkH;dj wdrCId lr.kska idufhka j;aug yels mirhla ksudKh lrkq we;'


  27. .uhs" mkai,hs" jejhs od.enhs" iuQmldrhhs" iuQmldr nexl=jhs hk ixl,amh wkqj rf isxy, fn!oaO ck;djg ;ukaf.a ixialD;sh wdrCId lr.ekSug yelsjkfia lghq;= lrKq we;' fuys iuQmldrh" ksIamdok iuQmldr f,i ia:dmkh= lrKqq we;' WodyrK jYfhka lshkafka k f.d iy f;a ksIamdok iuQmldr i|yka l, yel' lD;s%uj jeiai ,nd osh yels neka lkak ;=kla l=Uqre j.d l, yel'

  28. Yaj d,j, iy ;dCIKsl wdh;kj,;a" O mqoa.,hska iskao lrk fkdfhl=;a mfhaIK lghq;= i|yd fjku wruqo,la msysgjkq we;'

  29. iEu mkai,lu rcfha wkq.%yh ,nk <ore mdie,a msysgjkq we;'

  30. Wmk iEu orejl=gu rcfhka h uqo,la mskukq we;'

  31. iEu mdie,lu isiq isiqhkag muKla fkdj .=rejrekago Wfoa iy oj,a wdydr f,la ^mdka msj,ska f;dr& imhkq we;'

  32. taia" ms<sld" fvx.= WK hjehd wd frda.j,ska h .sh whg jka uqo,la mskukq we;'

  33. .fuka mkai,g fkdj mkaif,ka .ug ixl,amhg wkqj lghq;= lrkq we;' tk j;a ug m%udKj;a wdodh ke;s ck;djg wjYH wdydr mdk wdh mkaif,ka ,nd .; yels jkfia iEu mkai,lgu wdOdr uqo,la rcfhka ,nd fokq we;'

  34. isxy, fn!oaOhskaf.a jdy lghq;= mkaif,a isxy, ixialD;shg wkqj is lsug lghq;= lrkq we;'

  35. i1977ka miq rcfha ryia T;a;= fiajh iska isxy, fn!oaOhskaf.a iy rf wdlh kdY lsug lghq;= lr we;s neka tajd fidhd n,d m%;slu fhdokq we;'

  36. fldgia fj<fmdf<a ,ehsia;=.; iud. j, fldgia j,ska foaYslhskag < .;yels fldgia m%udKh imQK fldgia j,ska 10]l m%udKhlg iSud lrkq we;'

  37. jdKsc nexl=j,ska Kh f wemhg ;nd.;a kuq;a tu Kh .;a wdh;k fyda mqoa.,hska nxfldf,d;a k ta .ek fidhd n,d Tjqkag jkahla f.jqk we;'

  38. isxy, ixialD;sh fmdaIKh lrk l,dlrejkag iy f,aLlhskag h ukdjla f.Sug lghq;= lrkq we;'

  39. fcHd;sYH Yaj oHd, Ihla lrKQ we;'

  40. lxid j.djg rdcH wkq.%yh ,nd fokq we;' isxy, fjolf lxid ykajkq ,nkafka ff;%hsf,dal ch m;%% f,ih'wuD;h fidhd .ekSu i|yd fojre lsrs ihqr le<UQ wjia:df fuu me,Eh u;=jqk nj mqrdK l:dj, i|yka fjhs bx.%SiSka iska fuu YdLh ;yk l,;a j;udkfha b;d Yd, jyfhka lxid j.dj lrf.k hkq ,nkafka Bg we;s b,au b;d by, neks'

  41. l=ula" fldmuK" l=uK fj,djg ^lDIS ksIamdok& ksIAmdok l<h;= o hkak ;SrKh lsug m.Klhlaa m%fhdackhg .kq we;' tfiau tu ksIamdok j, f;d. md,khgo tu m.Klhu Nd;d lrkq we;'

  42. kg ls%hd;aul n l%uh fjkia lrkq we;

  43. W;=f m%Yakhg foAYmd,k iula wjYH fkdjk w;r tu m%Yakh isxy, iy fou< cd;slhska fo fldg ,lau folv lsug %;dkH iska we;s lrk ,o l=uka;%Khl m%;sM,hls'

  44. flfi,a" n;," u[af[dlald" fmd,a" ;e,s" bkak, fldia wd fnda. j, cd; lD;s fldg tajd fmd ck;djf.a mfNdackfhka bj;a fldg nyqcd;sl iud. j,g rf ck;dj ,s fok l%uhg reoaOj lghq;= lrKq we;'

  45. m%jdyk fiajh m.Kl .; lrkq we;' niakdysr m<d; i|yd Wux h moaO;shla we;s lrkq we;'

  46. fld<T iy ;%sl=Kdu,h w;r wf.S h ud.hla blrkq we;' we;s lrkq we;'

  47. %;dkHfhka iska ;%sl=Kdu,fha bfldg we;s uyd mudK f;,a gexls iuQyfhka Wmu m%fhdackh .ekSug f;,a ms myjla msysgqjkq we;'

  48. h fiajh i|yd 100]la u ,sh Nd;d lrkq we;'

  49. cd;sl wdlhla yslsug mshjr .kq we;' ^wdkhk wdfoaYk wdlhla&

  50. nqoaOd.ug m%Odk ;ek fok w;r fikiqrdod iy bod ksjdvq k fjkqjg fmdah iy fmr fmdah k rcfha ksjdvq k njg m;a lrkq we;'

  51. foaYSh ludka; lrejkg iyk <g ,sh iy n iyk ,nd fokq we;'

  52. f,dalfha iEu rgla iuu ikaO;d mj;ajd.kq we;' ta iEu rglu j;a jkqfha ukqIHhka neks' Okjd" iudcjd" l fyda iq fyda Tjqka ukqIHhskah'

  53. h cd;shlg tu rf ludka; j, ;dCIKh wys k Tjqka tu rf jyka f,i mhg jev lrk fldgils' wm okakd cmka" cuka" fldhka k wd rgj, ludka; j, ;dKfha whs;sh tu rgj, ck;djg whs;sh" kuq;a wm rf ;dCIKh .ek lsj yelafla l=ulao w;S;fha wmf.a uq;=ka ;a;ka l, fohska oYuhlaj;a j;udkfha wmg wh;ao tneka yels Wmu uqo,la jeh fldg isxy, ;dCIKhla ys lrkq we;'

  54. cd;sl ryia T;a;= fiajh m%;sixOdkh lrKq we;'

  55. ffh fyda jdhq ilrK fkdue;s jdyk foaYsh jYfhka ksmojk w;r tu ;dCIKh foaYsh rgj,g lsKSfuka foaY ksuh Wmhkq we;'

  56. ishu .ia je,a i|yd cdk nexl=jla msysgjkq we;'

  57. isxy, ixialD;sh fmdaIKh lrk l,d lrejkag iy f,aLlhskag h ukdjla f.jkq we;'

  58. ;%sO yuqod j,g wjYH hqoaO wdhqO foaYSh jyfhka ksIamdokhg mshjr .kq we;'

  59. wuq jH wmkhkh fjkqjg ks jH wmkhkhg mshjr .kq we;'

  60. isxy, fjolu m%p,s; lrk w;r isxy, fjo uy;ajrekag fYaI ukdjla f.jkq we;'


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